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Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury



Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injury may be defined as a considerable head injury which might lead to damage of the brain. Another name for TBI is an intracranial injury. This damage might cause some health outcomes of a wide range. Causes of traumatic brain injury include objects like bullets or some small pieces of a broken skull which penetrate to the brain tissue. Physical causes of this injury are vehicle accidents, violence or even falls. TBI is often as a result of violent, sudden, joint or blows into the head. In this case, the brain is initiated into a collision track through the skull, leading to possible staining of the brain, bleeding and tearing of the nerve fibers. Its severity varies extremely based on the affected part of the brain depending on whether it is over a pervasive area or in a certain region, and the extent to which damage occurs (MacGregor & San, 2014).

A head injury which is generally referred to as a traumatic head injury, although is a wider category, has become so common. This type of injury might extend damage to other parts of the skull or scalp other than the brain. Signs and symptoms of TBI sometimes may be subtle and take longer to show up after the injury. Other patients might appear healthy, despite the fact that they may behave or feel differently. TBI might have numerous and different psychological and physical effects. The early physical effects are swelling and bruising. When a damaged brain tissue bulges, the pressure is increased, the tissue pushes against the skull resulting in additional damage. The most common symptoms and signs of this injury include fatigue, persistent headaches, confusion, constant pain in the neck region, getting lost so easily, moodiness, slow thinking and speaking, changes in the sleeping patterns, dizziness, light headaches, loss of taste or smell, nausea and becoming distracted so easily. In children, symptoms might include vomiting, tiredness, unsteady walking, refusal to eat, changes in playing behaviors and loss of balance among others (Vasterling et al. 2012).

Traumatic brain injury usually interferes with the normal functioning of the brain. A case where the nerve cells are destroyed, they stop exchanging information in the usual way among each other. This results in a change in a person's ability and behavior. The injury might lead to further problems depending on the part that is affected most. Three types of problems associated with this injury include emotional, physical and cognitive problems. It is difficult to recognize a specific problem that a patient will have in time.

Many individuals who suffer from TBI can still use their hands and walk within twelve months after the injury. In most scenarios, physical problems do not hinder someone to live independently, including driving and working. TBI may produce weakness or lower coordination and problems associated with balance on a long-term basis. For instance, someone with TBI may get it difficult to play sports compared to a time when they were well. They might also be incapable of maintaining certain activities for too long hours due to fatigue (Philpott & Overdrive, 2011).

Persons having moderate or severe brain injury generally have difficulties in essential cognitive skills, for instance, concentrating, remembering events and some new information, and paying attention. They may happen to be confused so easily when things become hectic or too noisy around them, or when the normal customs are altered. They may also solve problems slowly, speak slowly or think slowly. However, these victims sometimes they may jump to a quick solution minus think it through. Sometimes they might have language and speech problems, such as understanding others or trouble finding of right words. After a brain injury, an individual might have difficulties in almost all intricate cognitive activities essential to be competent and independent (MacGregor & San, 2014).

Brain injury may also change an individual's personality or bring about disturbing new behaviors. This is so tormenting to both the victim and his/her family. These behaviors include lack of motivation, restless, irritability, lethargy, aggression, acting to be dependent, and mood swings among others. Injured persons might be aware of the changes in them or the problems they have. This can be as a result of a damaged brain or rejection to know the real problem so as to avoid facing the seriousness of the condition completely.

Fortunately, with therapy, rehabilitation training, and other supports, an individual can learn on how to manage these behavioral and emotional problems.

Medications for TBI include diuretics; anything which supports urine formation by the kidneys. Diuretics are administered intravenously and Mannitol is the commonly applied diuretic for patients with TBI. Anti-seizure medication can also be administered to stop more brain damage that is caused by seizures. Coma-inducing medications are also applied when doctors may find it necessary to induce coma more especially when blood vessels can no longer supply adequate levels of oxygen and food to the brain. Several patients who have significant injuries require rehabilitation. This includes relearning how to talk, walk and doing tasks that they used to handle initially. The main aim, in this case, is to assist the patient to become independent as much as possible. Usually, therapy begins in hospitals, and later proceeds to outpatient facilities or residential treatment facility. Based on the patients' requirements, they may either be treated by an occupational therapist or a physical therapist, or both (Philpott & Overdrive, 2011).

Avoiding the activities which might lead to another jolt/blow to the head is necessary. The patients should do what the doctors recommended them to. Again, the affected persons should get enough rest and never rush back to the daily chores or professional activities. Finally, patients should always seek re-learning skills that they lost.


MacGregor, A. J., San Diego State University, & the University of California, San Diego, (2014). Physical injury and psychological outcomes among U.S. combat veterans.

Philpott, D., & Overdrive Inc. (2011). Combat-Related Traumatic Brain Injury and PTSD. S.I.: Government Institutes.

Vasterling, J. J., Bryant, R. A., & Keane, T. M. (2012). PTSD and mild traumatic brain injury. New York: Guilford Press.


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